Hana Ghani is a PhD candidate in English Literature at Universiti Brunei Darussalam. Her research explores the impact of social media on contemporary poetic practices, focusing on instapoetry’s digital materialities. She is interested in Bruneian literature, as well as the convergence of literature and social media. E-mail: naqiyyah.hana@gmail.com


Liminal Characters in Non-Liminal Environments: Spacing Humanimality in Kathrina Mohd Daud’s The Halfling King

Abstract: The Halfling King portrays a world where crocodiles begin their lives as humans. After giving birth to a human-crocodile hybrid named Halfling, the mother and child move to the river jungle to live among other crocodiles. Although the human-crocodile entanglement dissolves the human/animal dualism, further dissection of the environment’s interaction with humans, hybrids, and crocodiles underscores the pivotal role of dwelling in defining
“human” and “animal.” Regardless of their characteristics, their power and agency depend on the environment they inhabit. Here lies the disparity in Bruneian eco-imagination. The trope of humanimality insinuates the Islamic perspective that God’s creations (makhluk) are equal. However, space continues to be dualistically portrayed as human settlements or natural environments, reinforcing the human/animal divide. This paper asserts that the tension in perspectives mirrors Brunei Darussalam’s national consciousness, shaped by Islam as a national religion and its reliance on the oil industry. Ultimately, this paper aims to broaden Rinni Amran’s framework on Bruneian eco-imagination by incorporating the national religion into the analysis.